An assessment of the tools available to decision makers responsible for managing allowable concentrations of metals in aquatic environments was conducted. The emphasis was on surface waters in the Okanagan Valley of BC, Canada and Washington, US. The assessment was framed around four primary goals, which included an evaluation of the validity of hardness corrected values, the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM), the Visual MINTEQ model (VMINTEQ), and a preliminary understanding of what site-specific qualities made one model a better predictor of toxicity than another.
Sofield, Ruth M. and Bollinger, Catherine P., "Trans-Boundary Metals Pollution in the Okanagan Regions of British Columbia and Washington State: An Assessment of Metal Toxicity and Speciation in the Columbia River" (2009). Border Policy Research Institute Publications. 82.