Non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) create a multitude of undesired economic, social, and ecological effects. Financial costs include reduced revenue and property value, and prevention and control expenditures (Pimentel et al., 2000). Social impacts include reduction in preferred uses including cultural and recreational activities, as well as loss of valued aesthetic qualities and civic pride in the surrounding ecological landscape (Bureau of Land Management, 2006). Ecological impacts include changes in soil and water quality, alteration of habitats, and displacement of native species (Elton, 1958).
Sellens, Laura J.; Markiewicz, April J.; and Landis, Wayne, "Risk Evaluation of Invasive Species Transport Across the US - Canada Border in Washington State" (2007). Border Policy Research Institute Publications. 87.