The Liberal Arts on Trial: Charles H. Fisher and Red-Scare Politics at Western Washington College of Education, 1933-39
Ron C. Judd
College president Charles H. Fisher’s transformation of Bellingham State Normal School, a small state teacher’s college, into Western Washington College of Education earned him the overwhelming respect of his peers, faculty, students, and much of the local community. His reward was an abrupt firing by Washington Governor Clarence Martin in 1938. Fisher’s ousting was engineered by a cabal of “anti-communist” citizens led by Frank I. Sefrit, the conservative editor of The Bellingham Herald. The group had ties to a range of “pro-American” groups, including the American Legion, several conservative women’s organizations, local churches, and the Ku Klux Klan. Sefrit called Fisher a communist sympathizer who fostered anti-Americanism, atheism, and “free love” on a campus infected by “Red” academics, many trained at Columbia University. College trustees in 1935 exonerated Fisher, but three years later, acceded to Gov. Clarence Martin’s insistence that Fisher be fired. Subsequent investigations described the firing as politically motivated, raising alarms about infringement of academic freedom during a period of social strife. Existing accounts of the Depression-era incident paint Fisher’s foes as oddball radicals. But the campaign did not occur in a political vacuum. Previously unknown documents about the Fisher case reveal varied personal motivations of Fisher’s foes in a town torn by political rancor, fomented by a vicious, decades-long media war. New evidence also reveals a link between the Fisher case and a concurrent national red-baiting campaign directed at academic institutions across the United States. Additional new evidence suggests that the Fisher dismissal might have been influenced by a separate financial scandal at the college in the 1930s. This study will explore Charles Fisher’s ousting in unprecedented detail, placing it for the first time within the context of a decade of strident, ultra-conservative activism serving as what one historian has dubbed “a bridge between the two Red Scares.”
Rebecca M. Marrall
Women of Color in Speculative Fiction: An Annotated Bibliography is tertiary electronic resource which focuses upon authors who are women of color (i.e., non-Caucasian) and who write speculative fiction for adult and young adult audiences. Examples of these authors include Octavia Butler, N. K. Jemisin, Daina Chaviano, Jewelle Gomez, and Malinda Lo. For some background, “speculative fiction” is an umbrella term for science fiction, fantasy, and some horror, all of which have literary and popular merit (Urbanski 2007). Historically, this field has been dominated by male authors of largely Caucasian descent; women and/or people of color have not been equitably represented in this genre. Completed in October 2016, the purpose of this annotated bibliography is to raise awareness about underrepresented authors who bring unique perspectives to this genre.
Here are the components of the project:
- Introduction: This document, which contains an overview of the rationale and implementation of the project, also includes a brief discussion of emerging patterns.
- Project Parameters: This document outlines the scope (and subsequent limitations) of this project.
- Annotated Bibliography: The annotated bibliography, which lists fifty-five authors and a summary of their novels and novellas.
- Addendum: Speculative Fiction Awards in North America: This collection of awards given to speculative fiction authors in North America may be a useful resource for LIS professionals (for library programming or exhibit creation) and / or other researchers.
Funding: Women of Color in Speculative Fiction was funded by the American Library Association Carnegie-Whitney Grants program. Learn more about the program here.
Acknowledgements: I must acknowledge, and extend deep gratitude to, two individuals who contributed to the success of this project: Desiree Campos, a student colleague who patiently gathered authors and affiliated works over the course of several months. Desiree, thank you for your persistence and commitment to this project. Rachel B. Rozdzial, MLISc., a colleague who provided editorial and authoring support for the annotations. Rachel, thank you for your keen eye and supportive feedback!
Feedback Form: Have feedback? Please share your thoughts with the author.
Accessibility: Contact the author if you need any of these documents in an alternative electronic format.
Robin A. Matthews
The idea for this guide, Freshwater Algae in Northwest Washington, began in 2006 when the Institute for Watershed Studies (www.wwu.edu/iws) expanded its Northwest Lakes monitoring project to collect water quality samples from more than 70 local lakes. This volume, Cyanobacteria, is part of a series describing freshwater algae in Northwest Washington, and includes simple algal keys that can be used by students with little experience in taxonomy, as well as members of the general public. Although the emphasize is on freshwater lakes, samples collected in streams, seeps, waterfalls, and other lotic systems are included, with comments on whether the taxa are likely to be found in plankton samples.
Robin A. Matthews
The idea for this guide, Freshwater Algae in Northwest Washington, began in 2006 when the Institute for Watershed Studies (www.wwu.edu/iws) expanded its Northwest Lakes monitoring project to collect water quality samples from more than 70 local lakes. This volume, Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, is part of a series describing freshwater algae in Northwest Washington, and includes simple algal keys that can be used by students with little experience in taxonomy, as well as members of the general public. In addition to freshwater Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, this volume includes non-desmid members of the division Charophyta, which would be difficult for beginning taxonomists to separate from Chlorophyta. Desmids, the remaining members of Charophyta, will be discussed in Volume III. Although the emphasize is on freshwater lakes, samples collected in streams, seeps, waterfalls, and other lotic systems are included, with comments on whether the taxa are likely to be found in plankton samples.
Igor de Rachewiltz
The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century is a shortened version of the three volumes of Igor de Rachewiltz’s similarly-titled work published by Brill in 2004 and 2013. It includes the full translation with a few notes, but omits the extensive introduction explaining the nature and origin of the text, the detailed commentary concerning linguistic and historical aspects of the text, and the exhaustive bibliography of the original. Included are the genealogical table and two maps from 2004, a shorter version of two indexes, and a very brief list of works cited.
Brian J. Bowe
In recent years, attempts by Muslims all across the U.S. to build worship spaces have been met with opposition. Some opponents questioned whether Islam should be considered a religion afforded all the protections of the First Amendment, or whether it is a sinister ideology that posed a threat to American values and should therefore be opposed. Supporters, on the other hand, argued that protecting the rights of Muslims to worship freely is a validation of important American principles. This debate played out in news coverage of the issue.
This dissertation examines the discourse in the debate through a framing analysis of news articles and editorials (n=349) from five U.S. newspapers between 2010 and 2013. Framing is the selection and emphasis of certain problem definitions, causal attributions, moral evaluations, and treatment recommendations in discussion of an issue. This research makes a contribution to framing theory by using Moral Foundations Theory to improve the operationalization of the moral evaluation dimension of framing. A cluster analysis of moral foundations was conducted, which four moral foundation profiles, all of which were strongly rooted in socially binding moral foundations. Those moral foundation variables were subsequently incorporated into a full framing analysis. A cluster analysis of all the framing components revealed five frames: Local Regulation, Political Debate, Muslim Neighbors, Islamic Threat, and Legal Authority. A subsequent qualitative analysis validated that these five frames encompassed the bulk of the debate.
Troy D. Abel
This book, Five Seasons in Ecotopia: Rainforest Immersion and Conservation Action in Costa Rica, is an effort to share our perspectives from five years of experience studying and teaching in Costa Rica through the intersections of geography, ecology, and political science. These reflect the dominant pedigrees of more than one-hundred students who annually spent five weeks in Huxley College of the Environment’s RICA program in Costa Rica. The RICA program was designed to foster global ecological citizenship through practices of democratic ecology that activate learner awareness and efficacy among undergraduate participants, Costa Rican students from local schools, and community members. In the 2011 field season, faculty and twenty-one students conducted observational studies of tree diversity, soil composition, avian bioacoustics, collaborative conservation management, and environmental education. Comparative observations were made at biological stations in Carara and Corcovado National Park in collaboration with Park staff. We hypothesized that significant contrasts will occur between the secondary forests of Carara and primary forests of Corcovado and their neighboring communities. Our results inform Costa Rican conservation and management strategies as well as contribute to the growing field of participatory ecological monitoring. Biodiversity conservation begins inside of Costa Rica’s protected areas but must be complemented by research, education and outreach in the communities outside of National Parks.
David L. Curley
Poetry and History: Bengali Maṅgal-kābya and Social Change in Precolonial Bengal analyzes Bengali maṅgal-kābya, a genre of narrative literature. The first essay argues that the didactic purposes of maṅgal-kābya and the performative pleasures based upon satire make them rich sources for historians of precolonial Bengal.
Three essays focus on Caṇḍimaṅgal texts, especially the version by Mukunda Cakrabartῑ, probably written before 1600 AD. They argue that Mukunda uses a ‘scale of transactions’ to describe normative roles for merchants in trade, for women in several status grades, and for warriors and kings who would seek to establish more pacific polities.
Three later essays employ more usual sources for writing social history in order to relate maṅgal-kābya texts to their historical contexts. A study of the gesture of ‘taking up’ pān suggest changing meanings, give the more centralized and bureaucratic claims to authority of the Mughal state. A study of the artistic patronage of Rājā Kṛṣṇacandra of Nadῑyā discovers a novel claim to kingship in Bhārat’candra’s Annadāmaṅgal, and in contemporary temples and temple inscriptions sponsored by the rājā. The final essay suggests that during the initial period of British rule, Lāla Jaẏínārāyaṇ Sen used new stories and new kinds of stories in composing maṅgal-kābya, in order to explore the kinds of agency required by the chaos of distinctly ‘modern’ times.
David Curley is Associate Professor in the Department of Liberal Studies at Western Washington University, where he has taught since 1991. He was educated at the University of Chicago where he received his B.A. in General Studies in the Humanities. After a period in the U.S. Army, he joined the History Department to complete his studies, and was awarded a Ph.D. for his work on ‘Rulers and Merchants in 18th Century Bengal.’
The influence of Bernard S. Cohn and Edward C. Dimock, Jr. extended and deepened his interdisciplinary interests. A desire to find alternatives to European sources for writing Bengali history led to his studies of precolonial Bengali literature.
The essays collected in this volume represent Curley’s interdisciplinary work in social history and literary criticism.
Arthur C. (Arthur Clark) Hicks
Western at 75, a history of the institution, was written in 1974 by Dr. Arthur C. Hicks on the Diamond Anniversary of Western Washington State College. Dr. Hicks used the opportunity to update his book, The First Fifty Years, which he had prepared for the Golden Anniversary of what is now Western Washington University. The book traces the history of a teacher training institute (state normal school) from 1899 through its transformation into a liberal arts school, with a still strong commitment to teacher education, but on the move towards a more broadly based curriculum with multiple colleges and bright hopes for its future.
The author, Dr. Arthur C. Hicks was a teacher and scholar of English literature, specializing in the English Romantic poets. Born 1901 in Canyon City, Oregon. Educated at the University of Oregon (BA 1922, MA 1927) and Stanford University (PhD 1932). Member of the faculty, Western Washington University, 1933-1969; Professor Emeritus of English, Western Washington University. Dr. Hicks passed away in 1994.