The terrorist attacks which occurred on September 11th, 2001, had a profound effect on American culture and society. For many citizens, the attacks brought a sense of unity among them against a common enemy: Islamic extremism. This new bond excluded Muslim Americans who, despite no religious or ideological connections to the 9/11 terrorists, were now treated all the same. Middle Eastern youth in particular experienced prejudice in the education systems with their peers and teachers as well as via government policies and the media.
Lebowitz, Jennie, "Muslim American Youth in the Post 9/11 Public Education System" (2016). American Cultural Studies Capstone Research Papers. Paper 6.