One of the principal tasks of current cosmology is to determine the amount of matter in the present universe. This task, however, is hampered by two basic errors, one the present method of measuring distances, particularly the reliance on the notion of a "standard candle," and the other the way the amount of matter is estimated, namely, by counting objects in the visi ble universe and estimating the amount of invisible matter. Underlying these two errors is the failure to study the universe in terms of spacetime.
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Copyright by author, 1994 and 1996.
Schwarz, Henry G., "Space, Time, and Matter" (1996). History. Paper 44.