Rubin’s ground-breaking study of Paraguayan bilingual attitudes toward the Guaraní-Spanish contact situation has been criticized by de Granda. Here, recent attitudinal data confirm most of Rubin’s observations, while endorsing some of de Granda’s criticisms. This sample of largely female, professional, bilingual Paraguayans is more loyal to Guaraní; however, contrary to de Granda’s assertions, ethnolinguistic pride is more in evidence for Guaraní, and Spanish pride is more utilitarian. De Granda questions Rubin’s notion of ambivalence about Guaraní, but these data support Rubin’s position, despite the fact that monolingualism in either language is not favored by a large majority. Counter to de Granda’s argument and in support of Rubin’s, these Paraguayans are as insecure about Guaraní as they are about Spanish. These informants do not reserve their linguistic insecurity for what de Granda refers to as the spoken norm (Saussure’s parole), but instead respond to parole and langue as a single entity.'
Southwest Journal of Linguistics
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Published by the Linguistic Association of the Southwest. This article is reproduced with their permission.
Gynan, Shaw N., "Attitudinal Dimensions of Guaraní-Spanish Bilingualism in Paraguay" (1998). Modern & Classical Languages. 61.