The vast majority of theses in this collection are open access and freely available. There are a small number of theses that have access restricted to the WWU campus. For off-campus access to a thesis labeled "Campus Only Access," please log in here with your WWU universal ID, or talk to your librarian about requesting the restricted thesis through interlibrary loan.
Date Permissions Signed
Date of Award
Master of Arts (MA)
Campbell, Sarah K.
Koetje, Todd A.
Boxberger, Daniel L., 1950-
Quartz crystal microblades are a small lithic tool technology dating predominantly to the Locarno Beach Phase (3500-2400 BP) in the Salish Sea region. The function of these tools has not been well established in previous research. This thesis applies morphological, microwear, and residue analyses to a sample assemblage of 68 quartz crystal artifacts from six archaeological sites in northwestern Washington State (45SK46, 45WH1, 45WH17, 45WH47, 45WH55, and 45WH59). The results of these methods determined that quartz crystal microblades were multiuse tools. Morphological analysis determined the variability of object types and metric measurements within the assemblage. Microwear analyses at multiple magnification levels identified a variety of scar types and patterns which suggests that these tools were likely utilized in both end and side-hafts, but were more commonly side-hafted. Results of residue analyses utilizing the cross-over immuno-electrophoresis (CIEP) method determined quartz crystal microblades were used to process rabbit, deer, and salmon. The use of CIEP analysis also identified human proteins, while the use of a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) identified red ochre. The combination of human protein with red ochre suggests that this lithic technology may have also served a ceremonial purpose.
Western Washington University
Salish Sea (B.C. and Wash.)
Copying of this thesis in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this thesis for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the author's written permission.
Kannegaard, Rachael N., "Quartz Crystal Microblade Function in the Salish Sea Region of Washington State During the Locarno Beach Phase (3500-2400 BP)" (2015). WWU Masters Thesis Collection. 412.