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Bayesian network, relative risk model, Population modeling, Ecological risk assessment, AChE inhibition, Landscape scale risk assessment


We estimated the risk to populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) due to chlorpyrifos (CH), water temperature (WT), and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in 4 watersheds in Washington State, USA. The watersheds included the Nooksack and Skagit Rivers in the Northern Puget Sound, the Cedar River in the Seattle–Tacoma corridor, and the Yakima River, a tributary of the Columbia River. The Bayesian network relative risk model (BN‐RRM) was used to conduct this ecological risk assessment and was modified to contain an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition pathway parameterized using data from CH toxicity data sets. The completed BN‐RRM estimated risk at a population scale to Chinook salmon employing classical matrix modeling runs up to 50‐y timeframes. There were 3 primary conclusions drawn from the model‐ building process and the risk calculations. First, the incorporation of an AChE inhibition pathway and the output from a population model can be combined with environmental factors in a quantitative fashion. Second, the probability of not meeting the management goal of no loss to the population ranges from 65% to 85%. Environmental conditions contributed to a larger proportion of the risk compared to CH. Third, the sensitivity analysis describing the influence of the variables on the predicted risk varied depending on seasonal conditions. In the summer, WT and DO were more influential than CH. In the winter, when the seasonal conditions are more benign, CH was the driver. Fourth, in order to reach the management goal, we calculated the conditions that would increase juvenile survival, adult survival, and a reduction in toxicological effects. The same process in this example should be applicable to the inclusion of multiple pesticides and to more descriptive population models such as those describing metapopulations. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020;16:28–42. © 2019 SETAC

Publication Title

Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management





Subjects - Topical (LCSH)

Chinook salmon--Effect of pesticides on--Washington (State); Organophosphorus compounds--Risk assessment--Washington (State); Ecological risk assessment--Washington (State); Watershed ecology--Washington (State)

Geographic Coverage

Washington (State)






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