Presentation Abstract

Chemical mixtures are difficult to assess at the individual level, but more challenging at the population level. There is still little insight of the molecular pathway for numerous chemical mixtures. We have conducted a regional-scale ecological risk assessment by evaluating the effects chemical mixtures to populations with a Bayesian Network- Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) incorporating a molecular pathway. We used this BN-RRM framework in a case study with organophosphate pesticide (OP) mixtures (diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and malathion) in three watersheds (Lower Skagit, Nooksack, Cedar) in the state of Washington (USA). Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Evolutionary Significant Units (ESU) were chosen as population endpoints. These populations are a valuable ecosystem service in the Pacific Northwest because they benefit the region as a species that provide protection of biodiversity and are spiritually and culturally treasured by the local tribes. Laetz et al. (2009, 2013) indicated that organophosphate pesticide mixtures act synergistically to salmon and impair neurological molecular activity which leads to a change in swimming behavior and mortality, which then leads to changes in population productivity. Exposure response curves were generated for OP mixtures to connect the molecular pathway. Ecological stressors from dissolved oxygen and temperature were also included in our risk analysis. Synergism within the mixtures as well as increasing temperature and decreasing dissolve oxygen content lead to increasing risk to Puget Sound Chinook salmon populations. This research demonstrates a probabilistic approach with a multiple stressor framework to estimate the effects of mixtures through a molecular pathway and predict impacts to these valuable ecosystem services.

Session Title

Modeling the Effects of Pesticides, Toxicants, and Multiple Stressors on the Fish Populations and Ecological Communities of the Salish Sea

Keywords

Bayesian network-relative risk model, BN-RRM, Adverse outcome pathways, AOPs, Puget Sound watersheds

Conference Track

SSE3: Fate, Transport, and Toxicity of Chemicals

Conference Name

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference (Seattle, WA : 2018)

Document Type

Event

SSEC Identifier

SSE3-68

Start Date

5-4-2018 10:00 AM

End Date

5-4-2018 10:15 AM

Type of Presentation

Oral

Contributing Repository

Digital content made available by University Archives, Heritage Resources, Western Libraries, Western Washington University.

Geographic Coverage

Salish Sea (B.C. and Wash.)

Rights

This resource is displayed for educational purposes only and may be subject to U.S. and international copyright laws. For more information about rights or obtaining copies of this resource, please contact University Archives, Heritage Resources, Western Libraries, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225-9103, USA (360-650-7534; heritage.resources@wwu.edu) and refer to the collection name and identifier. Any materials cited must be attributed to the Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference Records, University Archives, Heritage Resources, Western Libraries, Western Washington University.

Type

text

Language

English

Format

application/pdf

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Apr 5th, 10:00 AM Apr 5th, 10:15 AM

Assessing the effects of chemical mixtures using a Bayesian network-relative risk model (BN-RRM) integrating adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) in three Puget Sound watersheds

Chemical mixtures are difficult to assess at the individual level, but more challenging at the population level. There is still little insight of the molecular pathway for numerous chemical mixtures. We have conducted a regional-scale ecological risk assessment by evaluating the effects chemical mixtures to populations with a Bayesian Network- Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) incorporating a molecular pathway. We used this BN-RRM framework in a case study with organophosphate pesticide (OP) mixtures (diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and malathion) in three watersheds (Lower Skagit, Nooksack, Cedar) in the state of Washington (USA). Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Evolutionary Significant Units (ESU) were chosen as population endpoints. These populations are a valuable ecosystem service in the Pacific Northwest because they benefit the region as a species that provide protection of biodiversity and are spiritually and culturally treasured by the local tribes. Laetz et al. (2009, 2013) indicated that organophosphate pesticide mixtures act synergistically to salmon and impair neurological molecular activity which leads to a change in swimming behavior and mortality, which then leads to changes in population productivity. Exposure response curves were generated for OP mixtures to connect the molecular pathway. Ecological stressors from dissolved oxygen and temperature were also included in our risk analysis. Synergism within the mixtures as well as increasing temperature and decreasing dissolve oxygen content lead to increasing risk to Puget Sound Chinook salmon populations. This research demonstrates a probabilistic approach with a multiple stressor framework to estimate the effects of mixtures through a molecular pathway and predict impacts to these valuable ecosystem services.