Presentation Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine environmental effects-based concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons for assessing the impacts of fresh gasoline and fresh or weathered diesel in the freshwater and marine environments. The study was conducted by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and Nautilus Environmental to determine the NOEC and LOEC of gasoline, diesel and weathered diesel, in addition to IC25 and IC50 endpoints, using aquatic toxicity bioassays. In separate experiments, hydrocarbons within either the diesel or gasoline range were spiked into toxicity test solutions and weathered diesel in contaminated groundwater was obtained from a well-characterised site in Washington State. Freshwater organisms used were the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the echinoderm, purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) were the marine species tested. Tests were conducted according to US EPA test methods and Ecology’s whole effluent toxicity (WET) guidance document. Toxicity tests were conducted at Nautilus Environmental in Burnaby, BC. Hydrocarbon concentrations in test solutions were determined at the Manchester Environmental Laboratory, Port Orchard, WA. Gasoline caused similar toxicity between topsmelt, fathead minnow and Ceriodaphnia, which were more sensitive than the echinoderm. Diesel was generally more toxic than gasoline to all test organisms. With weathered diesel tests, this pattern changed and fish became the more sensitive organisms. All test organisms were generally less sensitive to the weathered diesel compared with fresh diesel. Compounds present in the fresh diesel that have been transformed or removed from weathered diesel may be responsible for greater toxicity to the invertebrates in particular.

Session Title

Track: Data Analysis, Modeling & Decision Making – Posters

Conference Track

Data Analysis, Modeling & Decision Making

Conference Name

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference (2020 : Online)

Document Type

Event

SSEC Identifier

2020_abstractID_4533

Start Date

21-4-2020 9:00 AM

End Date

22-4-2020 4:45 PM

Geographic Coverage

Salish Sea (B.C. and Wash.)

Rights

Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this document for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the author's written permission.

Language

English

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Apr 21st, 9:00 AM Apr 22nd, 4:45 PM

Toxicity of Gasoline, Diesel and Weathered Diesel Related Petroleum Hydrocarbons to Freshwater and Marine Organisms

The purpose of this study was to determine environmental effects-based concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons for assessing the impacts of fresh gasoline and fresh or weathered diesel in the freshwater and marine environments. The study was conducted by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and Nautilus Environmental to determine the NOEC and LOEC of gasoline, diesel and weathered diesel, in addition to IC25 and IC50 endpoints, using aquatic toxicity bioassays. In separate experiments, hydrocarbons within either the diesel or gasoline range were spiked into toxicity test solutions and weathered diesel in contaminated groundwater was obtained from a well-characterised site in Washington State. Freshwater organisms used were the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and the echinoderm, purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) were the marine species tested. Tests were conducted according to US EPA test methods and Ecology’s whole effluent toxicity (WET) guidance document. Toxicity tests were conducted at Nautilus Environmental in Burnaby, BC. Hydrocarbon concentrations in test solutions were determined at the Manchester Environmental Laboratory, Port Orchard, WA. Gasoline caused similar toxicity between topsmelt, fathead minnow and Ceriodaphnia, which were more sensitive than the echinoderm. Diesel was generally more toxic than gasoline to all test organisms. With weathered diesel tests, this pattern changed and fish became the more sensitive organisms. All test organisms were generally less sensitive to the weathered diesel compared with fresh diesel. Compounds present in the fresh diesel that have been transformed or removed from weathered diesel may be responsible for greater toxicity to the invertebrates in particular.