Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 1999


Female aggressors, Indirect aggressions, Verbal aggression, Ethnicity and aggression


The effect of ethnicity and aggression on the value judgments of female aggressors was examined. Aggression was subdivided into two categories, indirect aggression and verbal aggression. Indirect aggression is defined as attacking the target through social manipulation such as gossiping or exclusion from a group with the intent to harm the target. Verbal aggression is defined as attacking the target directly through verbal statements and intending to harm the target. Differences in the expression and acceptance of aggression may be the result of cultural variability due to the individualism/ collectivism dimension. Participants were 64 undergraduate females ( 45 Caucasian, 19

Asian American). After participants read three vignettes that depicted either indirect or verbal aggression, they were asked to rate the level at which they felt the actions were justified and the level of acceptability of the action. Then participants completed the Orthogonal Ethnic Identity Scale. I hypothesized that Asians would be less accepting of indirect and verbal aggression than Caucasians and that Caucasians would justify verbal and indirect aggression more than Asians. I also hypothesized that indirect aggression would be more acceptable and justifiable than verbal aggression for Caucasians and Asians, but Caucasians would justify and accept verbal aggression more than Asians. Indirect aggression was rated as more acceptable then verbal aggression irrespective of ethnic categories. Thus, counselors may be more aware of aggressive behavior and be better able to treat clients' aggressive behavior in their relationships.



Subjects - Topical (LCSH)

Aggressiveness--Cross-cultural studies; Assertiveness in women--Cross-cultural studies


student projects; term papers




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