The vast majority of theses in this collection are open access and freely available. There are a small number of theses that have access restricted to the WWU campus. For off-campus access to a thesis labeled "Campus Only Access," please log in here with your WWU universal ID, or talk to your librarian about requesting the restricted thesis through interlibrary loan.
Date Permissions Signed
Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
Gruman, Diana H.
Lehman, Barbara J., 1943-
Scollon, Christie Napa
Smith, Aaron J.
Hope and future orientation are impactful aspects of adolescents’ lives that are key in helping students to reach their goals. School climate is connected to the development of adolescents’ sense of hope and future orientation. Additionally, the conceptualization of hope and future orientation has varied, with some researchers describing the two as separate but related constructs or one single construct that encompasses both. In Mongolia, school climate research and research on hope and future orientation are still in their early stages. Using data from Mongolian adolescents (N = 1,507) collected in schools in three major cities (Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, and Darkham), we expand on these current gaps in the literature and discern whether support from school personnel may be a component of school climate. To examine the factor structures of hope and future orientation and then school climate we conducted EFA’s and CFA’s then used SEM to establish the school climate relationships to future thinking, a combined construct of future orientation and hope items. The results indicate that hope and future orientation did not represent two separate constructs for these Mongolian adolescents, but rather were singular factor of future thinking. Of the six school climate dimensions, Cultural Acceptance did not load as a school climate factor, but the newly introduced factor of school personnel support did. However, only four of the five loaded school climate factors were significantly related to future thinking. This study establishes a growing foundation of research for school climate, future thinking, hope, and future orientation.
Mongolia, hope, future orientation, future thinking, school climate
Western Washington University
Subject – LCSH
Mongolian students--Mental health; College student orientation--Mongolia; Motivation (Psychology); Hope; Self-actualization (Psychology)
Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this document for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the author’s written permission.
Diaz, Jaime, "An Analysis of Hope and Future Orientation in the Context of School Climate in Mongolian Secondary Schools" (2021). WWU Graduate School Collection. 1046.