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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award

Summer 2021

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Gruman, Diana H.

Second Advisor

Lehman, Barbara J.

Third Advisor

Scollon, Christie Napa

Fourth Advisor

Smith, Aaron J.


Hope and future orientation are impactful aspects of adolescents’ lives that are key in helping students to reach their goals. School climate is connected to the development of adolescents’ sense of hope and future orientation. Additionally, the conceptualization of hope and future orientation has varied, with some researchers describing the two as separate but related constructs or one single construct that encompasses both. In Mongolia, school climate research and research on hope and future orientation are still in their early stages. Using data from Mongolian adolescents (N = 1,507) collected in schools in three major cities (Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, and Darkham), we expand on these current gaps in the literature and discern whether support from school personnel may be a component of school climate. To examine the factor structures of hope and future orientation and then school climate we conducted EFA’s and CFA’s then used SEM to establish the school climate relationships to future thinking, a combined construct of future orientation and hope items. The results indicate that hope and future orientation did not represent two separate constructs for these Mongolian adolescents, but rather were singular factor of future thinking. Of the six school climate dimensions, Cultural Acceptance did not load as a school climate factor, but the newly introduced factor of school personnel support did. However, only four of the five loaded school climate factors were significantly related to future thinking. This study establishes a growing foundation of research for school climate, future thinking, hope, and future orientation.




Mongolia, hope, future orientation, future thinking, school climate


Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Mongolian students--Mental health; College student orientation--Mongolia; Motivation (Psychology); Hope; Self-actualization (Psychology)

Geographic Coverage





masters theses




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