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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award

Fall 2021

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Department or Program Affiliation


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Koetje, Todd A.

Second Advisor

Campbell, Sarah K.

Third Advisor

Boxberger, Daniel L., 1950-


The bow and arrow is thought to have had a major impact on the introduction of social stratification in the Salish Sea region through increased use of individual hunting, mirroring similar patterns from other parts of North America, as well as being introduced in the Salish Sea region roughly contemporaneously with a period of increased intergroup violence. While the bow and arrow may primarily have been used as a tool for hunting, it was fully capable of being used as a weapon in intergroup and interpersonal conflict. Many of the features that made it a more effective individual hunting tool over the thrown spear or dart also making it a more efficient weapon against human targets. Given this, the introduction of the bow and arrow to the Salish Sea region had the potential to increase the violence and intensity of intergroup conflict in the Salish Sea region. In a prolonged period of low intensity conflict, the defensibility of a given location from attack would be an important factor in the choice to build at said location. I hypothesized that if the introduction of the bow and arrow to the Salish Sea region was a contributing factor to a period of escalating interpersonal and intergroup conflict, then it could be possible that villages would be built in more and more defensible locations the more prominent the use of the bow and arrow was in the region.




Conflict, Projectile Points, Defensibility, Salish Sea Region, Warfare


Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Bow and arrow--Salish Sea (B.C. and Wash.); Hunting--Salish Sea (B.C. and Wash.); Intergroup relations--Salish Sea (B.C. and Wash.)

Geographic Coverage

Salish Sea (B.C. and Wash.)




masters theses




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