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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award

Spring 2022

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Department or Program Affiliation

Psychology (Experimental)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

McLean, Kate C.

Second Advisor

Weststrate, Nic M.

Third Advisor

Fast, Anne A.


One way of understanding the way that society and culture influence identity development is through an examination of collective continuity. Intergenerational socialization from in-group members could be one way that collective continuity develops. However, LGBTQ+ individuals are less likely to receive such socialization from their primary caregivers, and it is unknown how often they may have access to LGBTQ+ elders outside the family of origin. This study sought to examine what kinds of socialization primary caregivers and LGBTQ+ elders engage in, how they differ from each other, and how that socialization relates to collective continuity, identity, and psychological functioning. LGBTQ+ emerging adults were recruited from both an undergraduate participant pool and from an online research survey platform. Participants responded to close-ended survey measures and, if they had an LGBTQ+ elder in their life, provided narrative responses about a socialization experience with that elder. Results showed LGBTQ+ emerging adults experiencing three major types of socialization from caregivers and elders, including identity disapproval, personal affirmation, and cultural affirmation. Socialization was not directly related to collective continuity, but identity disapproval was related to worse psychological functioning while personal and cultural affirmation were related to positive LGBTQ+ identity and psychological functioning. Implications for LGBTQ+ youth identity development and their need for LGBTQ+ elders are discussed.




LGBTQ+, socialization, collective continuity, identity, narrative identity, identity development


Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Young adults--Psychology; Sexual minorities; Group identity; Socialization; Identity (Psychology)




masters theses




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