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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award

Spring 2022

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Department or Program Affiliation


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Human Development

First Advisor

Brilla, Lorraine R., 1955-

Second Advisor

Suprak, David N. (David Nathan)

Third Advisor

San Juan, Jun G.


Context: There is little evidence on the comparison of dietary intake in female college volleyball players before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. Because of the pressures athletes face to perform, it is important to monitor how athletes respond to adversity. Diet is important to consider when analyzing the overall health of athletes.

Objective: To investigate the effects of a global pandemic on kilocalorie intake and macronutrient consumption in collegiate female volleyball players.

Design: Subjects were invited to provide two diet health questionnaires about dietary intake before and during the pandemic. The questionnaires were the same.

Setting: An internet link to the survey with a username and password was sent via email in secure OneDrive Shared File.

Participants: A total of 15 female collegiate volleyball participated in the study.

Main Outcome Measures: Survey questions addressed habitual dietary intake before and during the pandemic. Total kilocalorie consumption and macronutrient consumption were analyzed and compared.

Results: Players consumed 1539 kilocalories per day before the pandemic. During the pandemic there was a kilocalorie intake of 1400 kilocalories per day (p= 0.33798; d=0.17). Players consumed 209 grams of carbohydrates (CHO) before the pandemic and 171 grams during the pandemic (p=0.01204; d=0.36). Before the pandemic, the amount of CHO consumed was 3.12 g/kg. During the pandemic, this intake decreased to 2.63 g/kg. Before the pandemic 116 grams of sugar were consumed each day; during the pandemic only 77 grams of sugar were consumed (p=0.00010; d=0.60).

Conclusions: This study shows CHO consumption in college volleyball players during the pandemic had a significant decrease compared to before the pandemic. Collegiate female athletes are still struggling to meet adequate carbohydrate consumption needed for competition and training before and during the pandemic. Reinforcing proper dietary habits may lead to better sport performance.




kilocalorie intake, macronutrient consumption, volleyball players, Covid-19 pandemic


Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Women volleyball players--Nutrition--Washington (State)--Bellingham; College athletes--Nutrition--Washington (State)--Bellingham; Nutrition--Evaluation; COVID-19 (Disease)

Geographic Coverage

Bellingham (Wash.)




Academic theses; Demographic surveys




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Kinesiology Commons