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Date of Award

Spring 2023

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Department or Program Affiliation

Health and Human Development

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Human Development

First Advisor

Suprak, David N. (David Nathan)

Second Advisor

Buddhadev, Harsh H. (Harsh Harish)

Third Advisor

Robey, Nathan

Fourth Advisor

San Juan, Jun G.


Kinetic asymmetry analysis is a prevailing topic within human performance and rehabilitative science. So far focused on lower extremity functional tasks, these pioneering research methodologies remain unapplied to the upper extremity. Relative to its popularity, research on push-up asymmetry is limited, with sub-maximal variation and sex-based comparisons few. A paucity of research exists utilizing innovative asymmetry analysis strategies in the upper extremities. Study objectives were three-fold: (1) evaluate vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) asymmetry across push-up variations stratified by force demand, (2) compare asymmetry across sexes, (3) and contribute novel, normative asymmetry data to the existing pool of research findings. Participants (10 female, 17 male) performed three variations of push-up while left and right upper extremity vGRF’s were independently recorded. Absolute asymmetry values of force-time derived measures of pushing force were then calculated. No statistically significant effect of variation or sex was shown across measures apart from braking impulse asymmetry and starting position weight distribution asymmetry where a main effect of sex was shown (p




push-up, asymmetry, upper extremity, pushing force, sex differences, performance testing


Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Human mechanics; Arm exercises; Sex differences




masters theses




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