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Date of Award

Spring 2023

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

Department or Program Affiliation


Degree Name

Doctorate of Education


Education Leadership and Inclusive Teaching

First Advisor

Bruce, Tim (Professor)

Second Advisor

Larsen, Donald

Third Advisor

Olson, Toska


Building a culture that allows sustained success is the goal of any organization. While an organization may have a period of success, few have sustained success. In some cases, however, success is sustained. This is the case for the Pacific Lutheran University football team under the leadership of head coach Frosty Westering. As the head football coach, Frosty Westering won four national titles. He is also a member of the college football hall of fame. How did he continue to be successful over time? This study attempts to answer that question.

A qualitative, multiple case study research methodology with a heuristic phenomenological slant was chosen for this study. This study explored the experiences of six former players who have used the principles of Frosty Westering as a leader in business and education. A semi-structured interview process was used to ascertain the experiences of participants' experiences with the phenomenon of EMAL.

Every Man a Lute, or EMAL, is a universal identifier for someone who has fully bought into Frosty Westering’s coaching philosophy and the principles that make up its foundation. The purpose of this study is to explore how applying the principles of Frosty Westering, and the concept of EMAL can support sustained success. Three distinct 'bedrock' principles were identified in some manner by those interviewed in this study. These principles, give it your best shot, goal setting, and letting the scoreboard take care of itself, are fully explored in this study.

Through the interview process, the data showed that when the principles of Frosty Westering are applied, a culture of success can be created. The implication for others is that one must buy into and consistently apply the principles. While it may be easier for a former player to apply the principles of EMAL, someone who is not familiar with Frosty, or the program, can still accomplish the task. According to the subjects of this study, the key to creating a culture of success is to translate the principles of EMAL for others.




Frosty Westering, Football, EMAL, Student Achievement


Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subjects – Names (LCNAF)

Westering, Frosty, 1927-2013

Subject – LCSH

Football--Coaching--Philosophy; Success




doctoral dissertations




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