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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award


Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Czopp, Alex

Second Advisor

Lemm, Kristi M., 1971-

Third Advisor

McLean, Kate C.


The source of motivation to respond without prejudice varies among individuals and is connected to their evaluations of biased materials. People who are highly internally motivated to respond without prejudice tend to be lower in prejudice than are people who are highly externally motivated. High internal motivation is typically associated with less biased responding, but when bias does occur feelings of self-directed negative emotions often result. For low prejudice people these self negative feelings can lead to a system of responses culminating in future self regulation. The same self-negative feelings do not function identically for people who are higher in prejudice. It was hypothesized that other directed negative affect might function in a similar regulatory capacity for participants higher in prejudice. This study investigated the relationship between other directed negative affect and biased responding, utilizing jokes as the bias measure. Participants were presented with biased jokes and asked to provide humor ratings. Affect was assessed following a confrontation manipulation after participants were given an opportunity for biased responding. Subsequently two other opportunities, one public and one private, were offered. It was expected that confronted participants would decrease their bias responding in public and potentially increase bias in private reports, when compared to the control condition. This backlash was not found. Confronted participants responded to the manipulation with a decrease in biased responding publicly, when compared to the control group which was not confronted. Self and other directed negative affect did not differ significantly between the two groups, although some gender interactions were significant.





Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Prejudices--Psychological aspects




masters theses




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