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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award


Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Trimble, Joseph E.

Second Advisor

Dinnel, Dale L.

Third Advisor

Jack, Dana Crowley


The primary purpose of this study was to explore the expression of self-silencing across cultures using indirect forms of measurement. Although some previous research has measured self-silencing in different cultural populations, no studies have addressed selfsilencing for Japanese participants. Many of the items highly correlated with self-silencing have been ranked higher by Japanese participants than those from the United States. Thus, self-silencing may not be equivalent across all cultures. Drawing samples from Japan and the United States, self-silencing for each of the two groups and gender were measured using the own-category approach, an open card-sorting technique. Hierarchical cluster analyses of the card-sort data did not show much agreement with the original Silencing the Self-Scale and each cultural sample; however, cluster analyses between men and women within the United States proved good cluster recovery (ARI= .89) between genders. Results between cultures suggest the amae and humility may be driving Japanese attitudes towards self-silencing.




Interpersonal relations--Japan--Cross-cultural studies, Interpersonal relations--United States--Cross-cultural studies, Interpersonal relations--Sex differences--Japan, Interpersonal relations--Sex differences--United States, Japanese--Attitudes, Americans--Attitudes


Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Geographic Coverage

Japan; United States


masters theses




Copying of this thesis in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this thesis for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the author's written permission.