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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award

Spring 2015

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Human Development

First Advisor

Keeler, Linda

Second Advisor

Suprak, David N. (David Nathan)

Third Advisor

deKubber, Lori


CrossFit, a form of high intensity interval training (HIIT), has grown in popularity (Thompson, 2013). Some physiological benefits of CrossFit have been documented (O’Hara et al., 2013), yet psychological effects have not been investigated. Hardiness has been linked to the performance of elite athletes (Sheard, 2009). Hardy individuals tend to have a strong sense of commitment, control and challenge (Kobasa, 1979) that enables athletes to create opportunities from stressful situations (Maddi, 2006). The CrossFit training style (“What is Fitness?”, 2002) may promote the development of commitment, control and challenge. The purpose of the study was to see if CrossFit training affected individual scores of hardiness, and if the scores differed from a second type of HIIT program. The study included novice CrossFit and boot camp participants. Thirty participants completed both the pre and post-assessments. The Personal Views Survey III-R (Maddi et al., 2006) was used to produce hardiness levels before and two months after their initial training session. A mixed between-within subjects ANOVA reveled no statistically significant interaction effect between group and time, Wilks’ Lambda = .96, F(1, 28) = 1.04, p = .05, = .04. Further, there was no statistically significant main effect for time, F(1, 28) = .507, p = .05, with a small effect size ( = .02) nor group, F(1, 28) = 1.042, p = .05, with a small effect size ( = .04). Qualitative results indicated that some participants noticed various mental changes over the course of the study suggesting that for some, cognitions were affected by HIIT. While hardiness may have not been affected by HIIT, other psychological constructs may have. Further research examining the effects of HIIT training should look at other psychological constructs such as coping styles.





Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Interval training--Psychological aspects




masters theses




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