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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award

Spring 2016

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Human Development

First Advisor

Suprak, David N. (David Nathan)

Second Advisor

San Juan, Jun G.

Third Advisor

Brilla, Lorraine R., 1955-


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hand position and elbow flexion angle on scapular kinematics in a traditional push up exercise. Sixteen healthy subjects (11 males, 5 females, age 20.50 ± 5.25 yrs.) participated in the study. Following a standardized warm-up subjects were instrumented. Kinematic data was collected via the Polhemus Fastrak magnetic tracking system. Following digitization, subjects assumed a push-up position. A 10-cm wood block was positioned on the floor to control for push-up depth. Subjects performed push-ups with their hands in a standard position, wide, and narrow. Subjects performed three repetitions of each condition to a 4-second count. During the concentric phase in each condition, mean scapular orientations were measured during an elbow extension range of motion (ROM) of 90º - 30º. There was no significant interaction between elbow flexion and hand position for scapular upward rotation (UR) (p = .938) and no main effect of elbow flexion for UR (p = .232). There was a main effect of hand position on UR (p < .001). Pairwise comparisons indicated that standard and narrow conditions showed greater UR than wide (p = .001 and p = .002, respectively). However, no significant difference was seen between standard and narrow conditions (p = .091). There was no significant interaction between elbow flexion and hand position for posterior tilt (PT) (p = .821). There was a main effect of hand position of on PT (p = .001). There was no significant main effect of elbow angle (p = .218). Narrow hand position and significantly higher PT than wide (p = .004). There was no interaction between elbow flexion and hand position on external rotation (ER) (p = .073). There were main effects of both hand position (p = .021) and elbow flexion (p < .001) on ER. ER decreased linearly with elbow extension (p < .001).





Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Hand; Scapula; Humerus; Kinematics; Exercise--Physiological aspects




masters theses




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