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Date Permissions Signed
Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
Health and Human Development
Suprak, David N. (David Nathan)
San Juan, Jun G.
Brilla, Lorraine R., 1955-
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hand position and elbow flexion angle on scapular kinematics in a traditional push up exercise. Sixteen healthy subjects (11 males, 5 females, age 20.50 ± 5.25 yrs.) participated in the study. Following a standardized warm-up subjects were instrumented. Kinematic data was collected via the Polhemus Fastrak magnetic tracking system. Following digitization, subjects assumed a push-up position. A 10-cm wood block was positioned on the floor to control for push-up depth. Subjects performed push-ups with their hands in a standard position, wide, and narrow. Subjects performed three repetitions of each condition to a 4-second count. During the concentric phase in each condition, mean scapular orientations were measured during an elbow extension range of motion (ROM) of 90º - 30º. There was no significant interaction between elbow flexion and hand position for scapular upward rotation (UR) (p = .938) and no main effect of elbow flexion for UR (p = .232). There was a main effect of hand position on UR (p < .001). Pairwise comparisons indicated that standard and narrow conditions showed greater UR than wide (p = .001 and p = .002, respectively). However, no significant difference was seen between standard and narrow conditions (p = .091). There was no significant interaction between elbow flexion and hand position for posterior tilt (PT) (p = .821). There was a main effect of hand position of on PT (p = .001). There was no significant main effect of elbow angle (p = .218). Narrow hand position and significantly higher PT than wide (p = .004). There was no interaction between elbow flexion and hand position on external rotation (ER) (p = .073). There were main effects of both hand position (p = .021) and elbow flexion (p < .001) on ER. ER decreased linearly with elbow extension (p < .001).
Western Washington University
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Arens, Tylre M., "Effects of Hand Position During a Push-Up on Scapular Kinematics" (2016). WWU Graduate School Collection. 491.