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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award

Summer 2017

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Human Development

First Advisor

Suprak, David N. (David Nathan)

Second Advisor

Brilla, Lorraine R., 1955-

Third Advisor

Buddhadev, Harsh H. (Harsh Harish)


The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant effect of distance on lumbar flexion and erector spinae (ES) muscle activity while rowing on a slide-based Row Perfect 3 (RP3) versus a fixed-based Concept 2 (C2) ergometer during a 1000-m time trial in competitive female rowers. Low back pain is a common complaint among rowers and certain variables such as increased lumbar flexion, timing of peak flexion and ES muscle activity have been associated with risk for low back injury. A better understanding of the effects of fatigue on the trunk and hip extensors may provide coaches and rowers knowledge on how to prevent low back pain and injury. Subjects performed one 1000-m time trial on each rowing ergometer, separated by approximately 48 hours. During each time trial, lumbar flexion and electromyography (EMG) of the ES were collected at four different distances: 250-m, 500-m, 750-m and 950-m. Capture time for each distance was approximately 10 seconds. Statistical analysis was performed using 3-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) for ergometer style, distance, and percent drive phase on lumbar flexion and ES activity. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for ergometer style and distance on peak lumbar flexion and timing of peak. There was no significant effect of distance or ergometer style on time to peak, peak and mean lumbar flexion, and right ES activity. Significantly greater ES activation was accompanied by significantly less mean lumbar flexion at 60% of the drive phase compared to 10 and 20%. Although there was no significant effect of ergometer style on right lumbar ES, there was a significantly higher left ES activation on the RP3 versus the C2.





Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Women rowers--Physiological aspects--Measurement; Back--Muscles--Measurement




masters theses




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