The vast majority of theses in this collection are open access and freely available. There are a small number of theses that have access restricted to the WWU campus. For off-campus access to a thesis labeled "Campus Only Access," please log in here with your WWU universal ID, or talk to your librarian about requesting the restricted thesis through interlibrary loan.

Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award

Summer 2018

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Human Development

First Advisor

San Juan, Jun G.

Second Advisor

Buddhadev, Harsh H. (Harsh Harish)

Third Advisor

Suprak, David N. (David Nathan)


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between kinematic variables at the knee, hip, and trunk during a single-leg step-down test (SDT) and running. Twenty-five healthy subjects (12 male, 13 female) participated in the study; mean ± SD age, 32.8 ± 5.9 years; height, 173.9 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 70.84 ± 11.3 kg; run volume, 59.5 ± 30.4 km/wk; cadence, 173.1 ± 11.5 steps/min). Dominant leg peak knee flexion was identified during the run (PKF-RUN) and used to find frontal plane knee and hip, and sagittal plane trunk angles. The same treadmill-matched knee flexion angle for the run was used to find the knee flexion angle identified during the SDT (TMKF-SDT). Knee, hip, and trunk angles were also identified at the point of the SDT where the heel made contact with the ground (HEEL-SDT). Two separate two-tailed paired samples t-tests were used to analyze the difference between the means of each test condition and Pearson Product Correlation coefficients were computed for each condition. Statistics revealed significant differences in frontal plane knee and hip angles between PKF-RUN (6.18 degrees ± 8.90) and TMKF-SDT (8.13 degrees ± 8.88), t(24) = -2.21, p = 0.037 for frontal plane knee adduction, and; PKF-RUN (11.14 degrees ± 3.22) and TMKF-SDT (6.48 degrees ± 4.53), t(24) = 6.17, p < 0.0001 for frontal plane hip adduction. There were significant differences between mean PKF-RUN (6.18 degrees ± 8.90) and HEEL-SDT (16.65 degrees ± 12.60), t(24) = -6.79, p < 0.0001 frontal plane knee adduction, and; PKF-RUN (11.14 degrees ± 3.22) and HEEL-SDT (17.84 degrees ± 5.63), t(24) = -6.45, p < 0.0001 for frontal plane hip adduction. No significant differences were found between mean PKF-RUN (6.44 degrees ± 3.67) and TMKF-SDT (6.33 degrees ± 6.46), t(24) = 0.104, p = 0.918 sagittal plane trunk flexion. There were significant differences between mean PKF-RUN (6.44 degrees ± 3.67) and HEEL-SDT (10.32 degrees ± 10.04), t(24) = -2.19, p = 0.039 sagittal plane trunk flexion. Correlations between PKF-RUN and TMKF-SDT were strong in the knee (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.768) and moderate in the hip (r = 0.57, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.325). Correlations between PKF-RUN and HEEL-SDT were strong in the knee (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.634) and fair in the hip (r = 0.42, p = 0.038, R2 = 0.175). For the trunk, correlations between PKF-RUN and TMKF-SDT were moderate (r = 0.53, p = 0.006, R2 = 0.285) and correlations between PKF-RUN and HEEL-SDT were fair-to-moderate (r = 0.49, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.237). The SDT and running may not be directly relatable to one another in the knee and hip. The trunk is also not relatable to running at the bottom of the SDT. Clinicians should use caution when utilizing the SDT.




kinematics, knee, patellofemoral pain, physical therapy, screening, functional performance testing



Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Joints--Range of motion; Hip joint--Movements; Knee--Movements; Exercise--Physiological aspects; Kinematics; Angles (Geometry)--Measurement




masters theses




Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this thesis for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the author's written permission.

Included in

Kinesiology Commons