The vast majority of theses in this collection are open access and freely available. There are a small number of theses that have access restricted to the WWU campus. For off-campus access to a thesis labeled "Campus Only Access," please log in here with your WWU universal ID, or talk to your librarian about requesting the restricted thesis through interlibrary loan.
Date Permissions Signed
Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
Babcock, R. Scott (Randall Scott)
Brown, Edwin H.
Ellis, Ross C.
The study area extends from Phantom Creek to Crystal Creek, a distance of approximately 10 miles along the Colorado River. The units exposed are the Precambrian Vishnu Schist granitic to granodioritic units in Phantom Canyon, Trinity Canyon, and near Crystal Creek, and pegmatites and aplites. The Vishnu Schist is composed mostly of quartzo-feldspathic schists. The assemblage quartz-oligoclase-muscovite-biotite-sillimanite-K-feldspar indicates metamorphic conditions in the upper amphibolite facies between Phantom Creek and Mile 95. Between Mile 95 and Crystal Creek, assemblages indicate lower amphibolite to greenschist facies conditions.
The Phantom Granitic Complex consists of granodioritic and quartz monzonitic units. The presence of a contact breccia, rotated xenoliths, and cross-cutting apophyses indicate the pluton is intrusive. The rocks cluster around the 3 kb cotectic in the Ab-Or-Qtz system which suggests a magmatic origin.
The Trinity Gneiss is a homogeneous granodioritic gneiss. Intercalated layers of quartzite and schist and calc-silicate lenses support a meta-sedimentary origin. Chemical data suggest that the biotite-rich layers are meta-sedimentary but the granitic layers plot along cotectic troughs and may represent rhyolitic or rhyodacitic flows.
The Crystal Creek Granite is a post-tectonic, epidoterich granitic rock. Field evidence suggest the pluton is intrusive. Quartz and schistose inclusions and the unusual mineralogical and chemical composition suggest the granite has been contaminated. Late low grade metamorphism has resulted in dominantly metamorphic textures.
The Vishnu Schist has been cut by pegmatite and aplite dikes. Apophyses and cross-cutting relationships indicate the pegmatite/aplites are intrusive. Chemical data clusters around the cotectic minimums in the Ab-0r-Qtz-H20 system suggesting a magmatic source. Large crystals and quartz cores suggest the pegmatites are of hydrothermal origin.
Petrogenesis, Precambrian Vishnu Schist
Western Washington University
Subject – LCSH
Granite; Geochemistry; Petrology--Arizona--Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon (Ariz.)
Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this thesis for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the author's written permission.
Walen, Michael B., "Petrogenesis of the Granitic Rocks of Part of the Upper Granite Gorge, Grand Canyon, Arizona" (1973). WWU Graduate School Collection. 838.