The vast majority of theses in this collection are open access and freely available. There are a small number of theses that have access restricted to the WWU campus. For off-campus access to a thesis labeled "Campus Only Access," please log in here with your WWU universal ID, or talk to your librarian about requesting the restricted thesis through interlibrary loan.

Date of Award

Fall 2023

Document Type

Masters Thesis

Department or Program Affiliation

Health and Human Development

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health and Human Development

First Advisor

Brilla, Lorraine R., 1955-

Second Advisor

Suprak, David N. (David Nathan)

Third Advisor

San Juan, Jun G.


The purpose of this study was to explore potential sex-specific differences in the torque-velocity relationship of the quadriceps and hamstrings. Sixteen male and 10 female recreationally active college students participated in the study. Concentric and eccentric peak torque was measured on a Biodex System 4 Pro at 60, 120, 180 and 240 °/s along with isometric peak torque at a knee angle of 60° (0° = full extension). Peak torque was then normalized to lean body mass as determined by hydrostatic weighing. The rate of change in peak torque as movement velocity increases was then analyzed for differences between sexes. The main finding of this study is that after normalizing peak torque to lean body mass there was no sex by velocity interaction (p > 0.05) for concentric muscle actions of the quadriceps, or for concentric and eccentric muscle actions of the hamstrings. However, there was a significant sex by velocity interaction for eccentric muscle actions of the quadriceps (p < 0.05, η2 = 0.358). Peak torque normalized to lean body mass accounts for many of the reported differences between sexes in peak torque and the rate of change in peak torque as movement velocity increases in the quadriceps and hamstrings. However, some sex-specific differences remain that result in a difference in the slope of the torque-velocity relationship between sexes for eccentric muscle actions of the quadriceps.




torque-velocity relationship, sex differences, isokinetic, lean body mass


Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Quadriceps muscle--Contraction--Sex differences; Hamstring muscle--Contraction--Sex differences; Torque--Physiological aspects--Measurement; Speed--Physiological aspects--Measurement; Eccentric loads; Isokinetic exercise--Physiological aspects; Isometric exercise--Physiological aspects; Body mass index




masters theses




Copying of this document in whole or in part is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this document for commercial purposes, or for financial gain, shall not be allowed without the author’s written permission.

Included in

Kinesiology Commons