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Date Permissions Signed


Date of Award


Document Type

Masters Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Political Science

First Advisor

Abedi, Amir, 1966-

Second Advisor

Donovan, Todd

Third Advisor

Kamena, Theodore H.


This thesis project applies the second-order framework to compare levels of elections in Spain. I pay special interest to the link between the country's electoral timing, territorial cleavages, and central-regional dynamic. The project implements two tests, one to measure vote choice in relation to general election expectations and cycles, and another to measure voter volatility between first- and second-order levels. Both tests are broken down by regional electorates and applied to elections to the European Parliament and regional assemblies. In light of the varying levels of decentralization found among Spanish regions, I expect test results to vary between regions that are more and less devolved from the center. I also hypothesize that European-level data will more strongly adhere to second-order expectations due to the differential of power between the two types of legislative bodies. My principal finding is that, from a second-order lens, most of Spain's voting behavior in European Parliament elections can be explained. In contrast, irregular voting patterns indicate a detachment of voter logic between general and regional elections.




Western Washington University

OCLC Number


Subject – LCSH

Elections--Spain; Political participation--Spain--History--20th century; Spain--Politics and government--1982-

Geographic Coverage





masters theses




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